Siirry pääsisältöön

Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR): Guide 2.0

Year of publication 2020

Anna Liisa Karjalainen, Mervi Kivirinta ja Jukka Määttänen



There are several ways of referencing commonly in use nationally and internationally. DIAK follows the practice presented herein. When publishing or submitting a text for review elsewhere, one must always check that the referencing matches the practice in each publication, institute of learning or department. This referencing system follows, for the most part, the APA 7 guidelines.

A reference informs the reader as to who has presented the information in question. The reference is written within brackets after the cited part in the text; for example, at the end of the sentence or the paragraph. The reference is given at the end of a piece of text, whether it is referred to or cited in verbatim. This way of referencing is neutral, subject matter centered referencing.

Author centered referencing is referencing whereby the author of the reference is mentioned in the text. When the author is mentioned in one’s own text, there is a particular reason for it: the author of the reference is emphasized as an authority or a comparison is being made, for example.

For example:

Spencer (2007, pp. 86–87) emphasizes – according to Smith (2013, p. 111) however, …

A reference is needed also when referring to other than written sources. A citation may thus be connected with personal communication or it can be a case of borrowing a figure or a table.